As members have said, you wouldn't have immediate symptoms to something like HIV. But you did have an actual risk if you had unprotected vaginal sex or anal sex and should get a test. A 4th generation DUO test at 28 days or beyond is a good choice for that. Try not to panic or freak out until then because a one time exposure is STILL low risk at less than 2 percent transmission. The odds are in your favor that you will be negative.
As an anxiety sufferer, I can tell you that both night sweats and chills are common symptoms of anxiety (and, ironically, of the medications used to treat depression and anxiety). As those above have said, it isn't HIV. That pretty much leaves anxiety.
Every one comes to this forum after reading about symptoms on Google. In the last 10 years no one with exactly concern like your have tested positive. You're also not going to be the first one. As suggested take the test at recommended time, next time insist on a condom.
Acute HIV symptoms are unlikely to occur within 24 hours of exposure. Night sweats are particularly unlikely within 24 hours. Excessive sweating in general can be due to anxiety. Try to relax and if you are still worried, get a 4th generation test in 4 weeks.
It is not possible to get symptoms of HIV that quickly.