Since you didn't feel a prick, you know that you weren't injected. Since there was no syringe you know that you weren't injected. Only needle risk is sharing hollow needles that you use to inject with, so those are 2 reasons you didn't have any risk risk.
This is irrational fear. You say you have hiv phobia, working in healthcare, that must be difficult. You need to address that with a psychiatrist and counselor and perhaps medication will help you overcome this mental health issue. You've probably been told this before and maybe even here on this forum, that they ONLY ways that people get HIV is from having unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse or sharing IV drug needles. Anxiousnomore told you the difference in needles. when you share a drug needle, you inject yourself (release the plunger). Simply poking yourself with a found needle will not give you hiv because air has been involved and that deactivates the virus. This is no risk and would really say it is an irrational fear and probably never happened. Have you talked to your supervisor? Do they know about your fear?
As the others have said, you have no risk. If you're unable to do your job as a result of your irrational phobia of HIV, you need to speak to your supervisor about being reassigned to a position in which you won't be around patients or needles because you're likely to make a mistake due to your phobia.
As a retired ER nurse, I find it nearly impossible to believe that the hospital you worked at did not have an RMT (RISK MANAGEMENT TEAM) to evaluate your risk level immediately. Even before HIV was added to the "risk list," especially for healthcare workers, RMT'S were in place for dozens of other risks. I'm adding my voice to GuitarRox, Chima and AxniousNoMore.....YOU HAD NO RISK. Perhaps discussing your fears with the Nursing Supervisor or any of the RMT's will help lessen those fears. And PLEASE......if you are going to continue working in a hospital setting......ALWAYS WEAR SHOES!