Thanks for using the forum. I am happy to address your questions, and my answer will be based on the information you provided here. Please make sure you recognize that this forum is for educational purposes only, and it does not substitute for a formal office visit with your doctor.
Based on your symptoms it's difficult to make an exact diagnosis without being able to get more history and doing a physical exam. That said, many of your symptoms sound consistent with cervicogenic headache. This just means a headache that is initiated by neck problems. Another but seemingly less likely possibility includes migraine (given the headache's throbbing quality) but people with migraine generally have problems with light sensitivity, loud noise, nausea and vomiting, and usually have a family history of migraine. Cervicogenic headache can be treated with a number of possible therapies drug injections in the neck to other muscle relaxing medications to more traditional headache medications. A headache specialist (which is a subspecialty of neurology) would probably be the ideal person to see as they usually able to do these neck injections themselves if they feel it's appropriate and are most well versed in other medicine options.
I have similar issues which started three years ago with Lyme Disease so I would rule that out if I were you from your internist. If infection is out, I would see a neurologist who can make sure you don't have any growths pressing on nerves. If not, sometimes the nerves get irritated and the pain can shoot up in the head for whatever reason... sometimes an inflamed blood vessel pushing up against the nerve, sometimes sitting in one position too long like working on a computer. In any case, there are medications they can prescribe for nerve pain and I've even had a nerve block at the base of my skull which worked very well but only lasted about a month. Good luck to you.