10 days is a US arbitrary line placed, but for chlamydia you need a test of cure. As it is a bacteria but in it's behavior resembles a virus. Log story short, until you have a 3rd consecutive negative swab, do not have unprotected sex, or even better don't have sex at all. And yes it is entirely possible that you have transferred the bacteria to your new partner. Also having chlamydia increases your risk of acquiring other stds. So, now let your new partner wait for at least 10 days and sent him to test, as if you transferred it to him, fast discovery can help in successful eradication.
Yes, I'm just going to basically repeat what klamidia said so you know how important it is to let your new partner know that there is a chance of them being infected. If you don't, and they have it, you could be reinfected. Your partner could also have long-term, serious consequences if they aren't treated promptly.
Obviously, no one wants to tell a new partner this, but you'll be a lot more respected for being honest than if you aren't.