The high antibody counts are the basis for a diagnosis of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and yes, that means your body it attacking your thyroid. It's not at all unusual to have a normal TSH in the early stages of Hashimoto's, because there hasn't been enough damage done, so your thyroid output is still normal.
TSH is a pituitary hormone, not a thyroid hormone... When thyroid hormone levels are low, the pituitary produces TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) to tell your thyroid to produce more thyroid hormones. The lower the thyroid hormone levels go, the more TSH the pituitary gland will produce in order to get the thyroid to produce more. Your doctor should also have tested the actual thyroid hormones, Free T3 and Free T4 - those are much more important than TSH, in spite of the fact that TSH is considered to be the gold standard in thyroid testing.
Nodules are very common with Hashimoto's, as is an enlarged thyroid (also called a goiter). The enlargement is usually caused from inflammation. Thyroid cancer is quite rare (less than 5% of all nodules are cancerous) and one of the easiest to cure, which is done by removal of the thyroid. The fact that your nodule had defined margins is good.
I've never heard that the more sticks they have to do, the better... I don't think you should worry if they only do 2. If they only do 2, that means that's all it took for them to get the information they need.
I know you're afraid, but try not to be... I know - easy for me to say... just try to relax. We're here to try to answer whatever questions we can.
If description is correct it most likely sounds like either follicular neoplasm or benign nodule that was having internal bleeding inside.
Chances of cancer are lower if cervical lymph nodes are normal.