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steadily increasing skin discolorations

for as long as i could remember i had a dark discoloration on my arm, there were only to areas discolored but steadily the discoloration increased on my hand and arm and spread along my body, its not severe but its noticeable and without a cause that im aware of, its slightly darker than my fair skin and looks blotchy. what could it be, and how should i treat it?
thank you
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What can be used to eradicate the darkened areas of the upper face and upper nose [ the lower half of my nose is my normal skin color]; this is embarrassing  (a doctor asked me why my nose was two tone in color) - what can you recommend I use. I am Afro American and Caucacian dermotologist don't seem to have a solution.
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Hyperpigmentation is a  condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin deposits in the skin. Freckles, age spots, and other darkened skin patches can become darker or more pronounced when skin is exposed to the sun. Age spots are a common form of hyperpigmentation that occur due to sun damage. These small, darkened patches are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun. On the other hand, melasma spots are similar in appearance to age spots but are larger areas of darkened skin that appear most often as a result of hormonal changes. Pregnancy and birth control pills may trigger overproduction of melanin.

Other causes of dark spots are injuries to the skin, including some surgeries. Freckles are small brown spots that can appear anywhere on the body, but are most common on the face and arms. Before using any medications, it is recommended that you have this evaluated by your dermatologist for proper management.  

Take care and regards
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