Generally speaking if the cataracts are not bothering the patient, they can be left alone. If your vision is stable, and your visual fields are stable, I would be inclined to leave your eyes alone for now.
As to the glaucoma surgery, nowadays we have 'MIGS', or minimally/micro invasive glaucoma surgery. There are several types of these non trab surgeries, but a fairly common one is the i-stent where they implant a metal tube into the trabecular meshwork and schlemms canal. The other possibility is laser endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP). Again if your glaucoma and visual fields are stable then you don't really need to have this done.
With regard to the targeted power of your eyes after cataract surgery, that is just down to your preference (We are talking about monofocal lens implants here). Many (but not all) short sighted people are used to the shortsighted experience, so their doctors leave them a little shortsighted after surgery.
But think about what you would most like to do without glasses after surgery.
If you would like to read without glasses, aim for something like -1.5 to -1.75D of myopia after surgery (and wear glasses for distance)
If you would like to use the computer without glasses, aim for about -1D of myopia. You will need glasses for distance, and sometimes for more close up work.
If you would like to drive without glasses, then aim for 0D of myopia and be prepared that all things nearby are going to be blurry and you will need reading glasses. This can be quite hard to get used to for some shortsighted people.
About the PVD-if you already have a complete PVD you are actually reasonably safe from retinal problems. The problem is actually in people who don't yet have a PVD or have incomplete PVDs. In these people, the vitreous is still attached in some areas to the retina. If the vitreous tries to pull itself off (such as during or after cataract surgery) then there is a risk of retinal tears and detachment. If there is a complete PVD, then there can be no further traction on the retina (except at the vitreous base) and a low risk of retinal tears/detachment. One can never be sure that a PVD is 100% complete, but if a Weiss ring is seen that floats in the midvitreous cavity, it is a pretty good sign that the vitreous is mostly, if not all off. On the other hand if there are areas of lattice degeneration, then there is a risk that abnormal vitreous adhesions exist there that could be a problem.
The gist of it is, don't worry too much, your PVDs are actually a good thing.
Thank you so much for responding to my post. The information you provided greatly helped me especially the question where you asked me to think about how I want to see following surgery. Never thought I had a choice. I cut my vision desires right out of the picture. I now feel more empowered to ask my Glaucoma Specialist who would be doing my surgery more questions even if it means paying for additional appointments prior to surgery or paying for extended appointments.
I've decided I'm not going to rush into cataract surgery. I like the way I see right now. If my doctor is proposing cataract surgery because he wants to surgically treat my glaucoma then that is something else that must be discussed.
Thanks again for putting me back in the picture.