Also, if you've had unprotected sex with your regular partner in the time between the condom breaking with the other partner and your treatment, your regular partner needs to be tested and treated. The partners you've had protected sex with since should be, too, even though you've used condoms. Condoms aren't 100% foolproof.
I agree with all of this, and though I'm late to this party, standard treatment guidelines suggest that you not have sex for 7 days following treatment.
All good answers here, do a full std panel, and have a confirmatory test for chlamydia after treatment, to be sure that it was eradicated. And no sex untill you are out of the woods.
Since you had unprotected sex, and you tested positive for chlamydia, I would avoid to have sex until infection disappears. Ask your doctor for further information. It would be also interesting to test for the rest of STDs, as your exposure was vaginal, so were exposed to gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes and HIV.
You could test as follows:
-Gonorrhea, same as for chlamydia, 3 weeks after the exposure.
-Syphilis, 6 weeks after the exposure.
-HIV, if you go for a 4rd generation ab/ag test, it will be accurate 28 days after the exposure. If you go for a normal antibodies test (finger-prick) it will be accurate 3 months after the exposure.
-Herpes, 3 months after the exposure.